The ketogenic diet is a very low-carb diet plan that was originally designed in the 1920s for patients with epilepsy by researchers working at Johns Hopkins Medical Center. (1) Researchers found that fasting — avoiding consumption of all foods for a brief period of time, including those that provide carbohydrates — helped reduce the amount of seizures patients suffered, in addition to having other positive effects on body fat, blood sugar, cholesterol and hunger levels. (4)
To prevent gluconeogenesis, avoid eating more than 1.5 to 2g of protein per kg of lean body mass (0.68 – 1g of protein per lb. of lean body mass). The way to figure out adequate protein levels is by using the Perfect Keto Macro Calculator.
On the ketogenic diet, carbohydrates are restricted and so cannot provide for all the metabolic needs of the body. Instead, fatty acids are used as the major source of fuel. These are used through fatty-acid oxidation in the cell’s mitochondria (the energy-producing parts of the cell). Humans can convert some amino acids into glucose by a process called gluconeogenesis, but cannot do this by using fatty acids.[56] Since amino acids are needed to make proteins, which are essential for growth and repair of body tissues, these cannot be used only to produce glucose. This could pose a problem for the brain, since it is normally fuelled solely by glucose, and most fatty acids do not cross the blood–brain barrier. However, the liver can use long-chain fatty acids to synthesise the three ketone bodies β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and acetone. These ketone bodies enter the brain and partially substitute for blood glucose as a source of energy.[55]
If you’re accustomed to a protein intake well over your body weight—let alone lean body mass—you may be skeptical about a diet that demands you reduce protein intake by as much as half. Wittrock can relate.
Don’t go cold turkey from high-carb to very low carb. Yes, you’ll have to give up pastas and bread in your sandwiches to achieve ketosis, but a few croutons or rotini in your salad, or enjoying your usual slice of pumpkin pie won’t hurt at the start.
Another key difference: a Bulletproof ketogenic diet focuses on undamaged fats — stable fats that won’t oxidize and cause damage to your body. Animal studies suggest that eating oxidized fats can damage brain cells and lead to inflammation and chronic disease.
I see and hear a lot of people fumbling when it comes to cooking for others. There’s a lot of reasons why people struggle with this, but my Oopsie Burger will both feed, and impress, whoever you are entertaining.
Sumithran P, Prendergast LA, Delbridge E, Purcell K, Shulkes A, Kriketos A et al. Ketosis and appetite-mediating nutrients and hormones after weight loss. Eur J Clin Nutr 2013;, e-pub ahead of print 1 May 2013; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.90.
So where do you start your calculations? With carbs and protein. When first getting started, it is ideal to keep carbohydrates less than 50 grams per day. Wittrock found that he likes to go even lower.
We’re fasting! Black coffee if you’re a caffeine addict like me. Tea, if you are not into the coffee so much. Tea can add great health benefits like coffee also. Some of the great benefits of green tea are:
Water, water, and then some more water. You don’t get to eat lunch and you don’t get to eat breakfast. So make sure you keep yourself VERY hydrated. It’s imperative here that you do a good job with your hydration. Remember – I recommend 4 liters a day.
I will be trying this for my husband! I have gallbladder issues, and can’t eat fats other than coconut, olive, salmon, avocado, eggs, flax, lean poultry, and sparingly tree nuts. Dairy and fatty meats and all vegetable oils are out. Is there a way to make this work for me? I really don’t want to prepare 2 meals at every meal…
#1. 30-Day Keto Menu Ideas: to give you basic ideas of what types of foods you can have and how to prepare them with step by step recipes and nutritional information per serving. This basically gives you tons of recipes so you will never run out of ideas for what to eat!
On a “strict” (standard) keto diet, fats typically provides about 70 percent to 80 percent of total daily calories, protein about 15 percent to 20 percent, and carbohydrates just around 5 percent. However, a more “moderate” approach to the keto diet is also a good option for many people that can allow for an easier transition into very low-carb eating and more flexibility (more on this type of plan below).
Drink water and supplement electrolytes. Most common problems come from dehydration or lack of electrolytes. When you start keto (and even in the long run), make sure that you drink plenty of water, salt your foods, and take a multivitamin. If you’re still experiencing issues, you can order electrolyte supplements individually.

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While macros will differ a little from person to person, the general rule of thumb for keto is to keep carbohydrates under 5% of your daily caloric intake. As long as you avoid the foods mentioned above, you should be fine. Google “TDEE calculator” if you need some additional guidance on how many calories to eat. I’ve had success following this way of eating as it allows me to eat foods that taste great. There are tons of resources online as well if you need additional guidance. A quick google search should turn up a ton of resources. Hope this helps!
The metabolic effects of a ketogenic diet imply a higher-than-usual oxidation of fats, which leads in turn to reduced respiratory exchange ratio values.20, 97 Metabolic carbon dioxide output may be calculated as the product of alveolar ventilation multiplied by the fractional alveolar carbon dioxide concentration. Pulmonary ventilation differs from alveolar ventilation only by the amount of physiological dead space, and there is no reason to suspect a change in physiological dead space when a dietary manipulation is applied. Hence, following a ketogenic diet-induced decrement of the respiratory exchange ratio and of metabolic carbon dioxide output, a decrease in arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure or of pulmonary ventilation, or of both, is expected. If verified, these effects might be useful in the treatment of patients with respiratory failure; however, this aspect of the ketogenic diet remains to be investigated. Sabapathy et al.98 observed that the reduction in muscle glycogen content caused a respiratory exchange ratio decrement, which was associated with reduced carbon dioxide partial pressure and constancy of pulmonary ventilation. These findings at least suggest potential useful effects of this diet in patients with increased carbon dioxide, arterial partial-pressure values as a consequence of respiratory failure. Of course, more studies are needed to verify this working hypothesis.
Moving forward, I definitely plan to adopt a low-carb diet. Personally, cutting carbs—especially processed, refined carbs—completely alleviated the occasional bloating and abdominal pain I suffered from and endowed me with long-lasting energy. And by the end of the ten days, I had lost about a pound and a half and few centimeters off my waist—not enough to fit into my enshrouded pair of AG jeans, but a sufficient amount to feel some sense of pride.
Unlike many fad diets that come and go with very limited rates of long-term success, the ketogenic diet or keto diet has been practiced for more than nine decades (since the 1920s) and is based upon a solid understanding of physiology and nutrition science.
The ketone bodies are possibly anticonvulsant; in animal models, acetoacetate and acetone protect against seizures. The ketogenic diet results in adaptive changes to brain energy metabolism that increase the energy reserves; ketone bodies are a more efficient fuel than glucose, and the number of mitochondria is increased. This may help the neurons to remain stable in the face of increased energy demand during a seizure, and may confer a neuroprotective effect.[55]
Additionally, the keto diet may also help patients with degenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease (16). Research shows that with the onset of Alzheimer’s, the brain’s cells stop responding to insulin (much like type 2 diabetes), which causes inflammation in the brain
Physicians of ancient Greece treated diseases, including epilepsy, by altering their patients’ diet. An early treatise in the Hippocratic Corpus, On the Sacred Disease, covers the disease; it dates from c. 400 BC. Its author argued against the prevailing view that epilepsy was supernatural in origin and cure, and proposed that dietary therapy had a rational and physical basis.[Note 3] In the same collection, the author of Epidemics describes the case of a man whose epilepsy is cured as quickly as it had appeared, through complete abstinence of food and drink.[Note 4] The royal physician Erasistratus declared, “One inclining to epilepsy should be made to fast without mercy and be put on short rations.”[Note 5] Galen believed an “attenuating diet”[Note 6] might afford a cure in mild cases and be helpful in others.[11]
During the 1920s and 1930s, when the only anticonvulsant drugs were the sedative bromides (discovered 1857) and phenobarbital (1912), the ketogenic diet was widely used and studied. This changed in 1938 when H. Houston Merritt and Tracy Putnam discovered phenytoin (Dilantin), and the focus of research shifted to discovering new drugs. With the introduction of sodium valproate in the 1970s, drugs were available to neurologists that were effective across a broad range of epileptic syndromes and seizure types. The use of the ketogenic diet, by this time restricted to difficult cases such as Lennox–Gastaut syndrome, declined further.[10]